F : the movement of bending and twisting the spine, stretching the spinal column while bending over, holding the body upright, bending the spine sideways
superficial spinal muscles
-longissimus (long back muscle)
They are thicker at the base of the back and become more flat close to the top >'Christmas tree'
F : a kind of safety belt when bending sideways and forwards, keeps the body upright and balanced
quadratus lumborum muscle (QL muscle, muscle that you can massage together with the abdominal muscles in the groin area, not shown in the book).
O : crista iliaca
I : 12e rib, L1-4 proc. costalis
F: lateral flexion of the spine (bending sideways), one-sided lifting of the pelvis.
intercostal muscles (breathing)
abdominals (stomach muscles)
The abdominals or stomach muscles, together with the erector spinae, form the centre (the core) of the body. The abdominalis runs from the ribs to the pubic bone and illiac crest. The abdominal muscles are usually divided into 2 groups each with their own functions.
musculus rectus abdominis (abdominal muscle)
O : lower ribs I : pubic bone
F : anteflexion: movement of lifting the legs forwards; tilting backwards and stabilizing the pelvis.
musculus obliquus externus and internus abdominis (external oblique and internal oblique abdominal muscles)
O : ribs
I : crista iliaca (illiac crest)
F : movement that stabilizes lower back/stomach/pelvis, maintains tension on abdominal contents, respiration, flexing/stretching, rotation of the spine.
Buttock, hip and thigh muscles
m. ilipsoas (abdominal-bone lumbar muscle)
psoas: a lumbar spine muscle O : lumbar vertebrae
I : lesser trochanter (upper thigh bone) Iliacus muscle
O : interior iliaca (hip bone) I : lesser trochanter
F : movement of bending the hip (flexion), raising the torso to a sitting position while lying down.