Anatomy terminology

Anatomy terminology

Anatomy terminology: with foot reflexology but also massage you often see the anatomy terminology, here we explain what they mean

Medial:                           = towards the midline/interior

Lateral:                          = away from the midline/exterior

Ventral/anterior:         = front/ forwards

Dorsal/posterior:         = rear/towards the back

Proximal:                       = closer to the center of the body

Distal:                             = away from the center of the body

Cranial:                          = upwards towards the position of the head

Caudal:                          = towards the position of the tail bone/tailbone

Anatomy terminology

Skeletal Orientation points
  • Shoulder blade - scapula
  • bone plate on the scapula - spina scapula
  • coracoid - processus coracoideus
  • shoulder blade cap - acromion
  • collarbone - clavicula
  • upper arm bone -  humerus
  • forearm bones -  radius, ulna
  • intervertebral disk -       vertebra
  • spinous process (bony protuberance on top of the vertebrae) - processus spinosus
  • transverse process (bony protuberance on the sides of the vertebrae) - processus transversus
  • cervical vertebrae column - cervical vc, C1 tm C7
  • thoracic vertebrae column  - thoracic vc, Th1-Th 12
  • lumbar vertebrae columna - lumbar vc, L1- L5
  • breastbone - sternum
  • rib -  costa
  • pelvis (uppermost, largest part of the hip bone, sit-bones)    - os coxa (ilium,ischii, pubis )
  • sacrum -  os sacrum (S1-S5)
  • tailbone -  coccyx - os coccygis
  • thighbone - femur
  • lower leg -  tibia (tibia) fibula (calf bone)


Direction of joint movement

Bending: flexion

Stretching: extension

Bending sideways: lateral flexion

Turning inwards: endorotation

Turning outwards:  exorotation

Turning sideways & outwards : abduction

Turning sideways & inwards:  adduction




Shoulder joint=articulatio humerus
Elbow joint=articulatio cubitus
Hip joint:=articulatio coxæ
Knee joint:=articulatio genus

Anatomy terminology
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